The debate featured those for the proposed dam the conservationists and those opposed the preservationists. See these: The Plight of Hetch Hetchy This section of the Yosemite History page begins the series of discussions on Hetch Hetchy. Between 1908 and 1913, congress debated whether to make a water resource available or preserve a wilderness when the growing city of san francisco, california proposed building a dam in the hetch hetchy valley to provide a steady water supply. A rational person will always follow their individual interests unless their portion of the cost of collective interests is more than the cost of their individual interests. Copyright 2023 IPL.org All rights reserved. Others are mainly outraged because the Standing Rock Sioux tribe never agreed to the construction of the pipeline. In addition, Nash continues his article by giving facts about the water in Texas being glutted with run-off from centers of population, factories and farms that all alter the chemical constitution of water (3) creating a deeper predicament for the people in Texas. but rather that I saw more pros than cons in building the dam. It would be much easier to fight for restoration if we had some bad guys to rally against, but I dont see any. In 2012, Restore Hetch Hetchy placed a measure on the San Francisco ballot that would have required the city to conduct an $8 million study on the impacts of draining the reservoir. Oak Trees end up showing the history of conservation, and wildlife comes from what others consider devastation of the land. The Bay Area Monitor thanks Craig Newmark Philanthropies for funding support of this site. Copyright 2014-2023 Yosemite Tales | Powered by WordPress | Design by Starry Night Web Designs. Pinchots legacy was the creation of managed wilderness lands that could be used by humans in their survival. In todays time, these feuds are highly controversial. Its going to be used to transport oil to the United States from Canada. In re applications of A. H. Ward and Mariposa electrical . [emailprotected]. In a state wracked with drought, the Hetch Hetchy is an exception to the rule. So Restore Hetch Hetchy filed an appeal with the Court of Appeals in Fresno, which heard arguments from both sides in May of this year. On the other hand, Navajo representative, Ed Bencenti wrote the article, Senate Bill 2109 Seeks to Extinguish Navajo and Hopi Water Rights, in which he exposes the real intentions of the Senate Bill. Thus long ago a few enterprising merchants utilized the Jerusalem temple as a place of business instead of a place of prayer, changing money, buying and selling cattle and sheep and doves; and earlier still; the first forest reservation, including only one tree, was likewise despoiled. That anyone would try to destroy [Hetch Hetchy Valley] seems; incredible; but sad experience shows that there are people good enough and bad enough for anything. The Sierra Club gained 1,000 members by 1908 and from them on continued to rise. Considering the context of the hetch hetchy debate at the time,. But after a change of administration at the White House and the 1906 earthquake, sentiments in favor of San Francisco grew. The construction of the Hetch Hetchy Railroad took place from 1915 to 1918. Nevertheless, like anything else worthwhile, from the very beginning, however well guarded, they have always been subject to attack by despoiling gain-seekers and mischief-makers of every degree from Satan to Senators, eagerly trying to make everything immediately and selfishly commercial, with schemes disguised in smug-smiling philanthropy, industriously, shampiously crying, Conservation, conservation, panutilization, that man and beast may be fed and the dear Nation made great. . Ultimately, Muir lost in his long battle to protect Hetch Hetchy, but what was established was that to infringe upon the resources of the national parks was simply not worth the money and time because of the long legal battle that would occur. I reached out to Restore Hetch Hetchy and asked them, WHY Restore Hetch Hetchy wants the valley restored. In response, Spreck Rosekrans, Executive Director said (among other things): Restore Hetch Hetchys mission remains, to return the Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park to its natural splendor while continuing to meet the water and power needs of all communities that depend on the Tuolumne River.. The responsibility for alleviating the situation fell on the department of the Interiors Bureau of Reclamation. Pg.11 They noticed how bad the situation was so they tried stopping it. 1. Given that the valley was flooded, restoration would be an ideal opportunity to witness, first hand, its rebirth. Do the State and Federal filtration standards that Hetch Hetchy Reservoir meets or exceeds include the standards necessary to eliminate the Giardia parasites? Today, however, that valley is under 300 feet of water. The projected restored the natural habitat of the river and opened it up to its original course from the Olympic Mountains to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Monitoring location 11275500 is associated with a LAKE, RESERVOIR, IMPOUNDMENT in TUOLUMNE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. The Hetch Hetchy Project controversy brought into sharp relief the difference between conservation and preservation. Photo by Isaiah West Taber. As Leopold moves along in A Sand County Almanac, the reader finally understands the full scale of thought that is placed in front of them. Brown mentions many ways to fix the ever growing problem at hand, and at the time, most seemed very radical. So the water is officially considered to be safer than most water sources, but not safe to drink unfiltered and untreated. When Spreck Rosekrans visits Hetch Hetchy the valley in Yosemite National Park that San Francisco turned into a reservoir nearly a century ago he looks beyond what is. In the essay Thinking Like A Mountain, Aldo Leopold tell us how important is sustainability. The Hetch Hetchy entrance to the park is a gateway to Yosemite Valley's breathtaking cousin. This decision concluded a decade-long, highly contentious debate over the dam-and-reservoir complex to supply water to post-earthquake San Francisco, a battle that was . California should now spend money for, In the 1800s, the first national debate occurred over the idea of damming Hetch Hetchy. Hardin defines the commons as finite, usually natural, resources that are shared and freely accessible to everyone (1968, pp. Not only would restoration make Yosemite entire once more, but would also encourage others that we don't have to continue making . Select from premium Hetch Hetchy Dam of the highest quality. You own magnificent red-rock canyons and beautiful turquoise rivers. A society as advanced as the humans on earth must have areas of wilderness regulated by the government. Today, hetch hetchy valley is a dammed and flooded reservoir. During 19th century, the Hetch Hetchy Dam was being inhabited by the Native Americans who usually practiced the so called hunting-gathering. May be crucial for the energy transition process. As in Yosemite, the sublime rocks of its walls seem to glow with life, whether leaning back in repose or standing erect in thoughtful attitudes, giving welcome to storms and calms alike, their brows in the sky, their feet set in the groves and gay flowery meadows, while birds, bees, and butterflies help the river and waterfalls to stir all the air into musicthings frail and fleeting and types of permanence meeting here and blending, just as they do in Yosemite, to draw her lovers into close and confiding communion with her. Through his life experience, he then realize sustainability importance, all species have inherent value in the biosphere, humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity only to satisfy our needs, from the perspective of, John Muir, a naturalist and preservation pioneer of nature took an ethical stand for land ethics when he shared his thoughts that all living things are equally important parts of the land, and animals and plants have as much right to live and survive as people do. Back in the early nineteen hundreds, when the debate start about The Hetch Hetchy dam being built a large majority of people did not realize or care how valuable nature is. Reliable: Tidal currents are predictable. Emma Odom Hetch Hetchy Dam Environmental Debate The Hetch Hetchy Dam in Yosemite's national park is the focal point of a battle between the city of San Francisco, which built the dam almost a century ago, and environmentalists, who want it to be torn down. Back in the early nineteen hundreds, when the debate start about The Hetch Hetchy dam being built a large majority of people did not realize or care how valuable nature is. . 7. It uses a free resource. But whenever we did have floodings the cost was very high to try and building and fixing it back up. I have had no response on these questions. The latest twist in this long story has just unfolded, and the final chapter is yet to come. This would also mean that park of the national park would be flooded destroying the forest and nature living in the valley.The common view among americans was that is was in the most part for the greater good. Dams, aquifers and parks. Browse 129 hetch hetchy reservoir stock photos and images available, or search for yosemite national park or tuolumne river to find more great stock photos and pictures. India. Reservoir releases also generate hydropower that San Francisco uses for . The Continuing Battle Over Hetch Hetchy In this final post from April 7, 2016, I reflect on the aftermath of the construction of the dam. This, coupled with many accounts that say the beauty and grandeur of the valley rivaled that of its sister, Yosemite Valley, just makes it worse. Assign each group to analyze one or more . The brought and gave good to yuma and went through the colorado river because yuma was mostly a flood plain at a constant level. Historical photographs show why: like Yosemite Valley, Hetch Hetchy has sheer granite walls that originally rose dramatically from a wide valley floor. Supporters of the appeal include Barbara Griffin and Robert Binnewies, both former superintendents of Yosemite National Park. Pinchot made efforts to understand the physical and biological background behind forest fires and this would impress politicians and those who were involved in the environmental field. Pinchot during this time understood that raging forest fires occurring in certain areas of the country was one aspect that needed to be fixed. Water data back to 1930 are available online. 1244). They also cannot pass through because there is going to be a dam in there way. After working with the Sierras of California, Muir wrote enthusiastically and skillfully about the protection of national, Aldo Leopold is considered the most influential conservationist in the 20th century. tuolumne river. It was originally posted in June 2015. Thats not all because the drinking water downstream from DAPL could be affected too, and next thing you know hundreds of thousands of people will. The area where the Hetch Hetchy project was to take place was an established part of a national park and therefore off limits for human use. Your 50025 word paper should: Read each of the articles on the uploaded file. The Hetch Hetchy Railroad (HHRR) was a 68-mile (109 km) standard gauge Class III railroad constructed by the City of San Francisco to support the construction and expansion of the O'Shaughnessy Dam across Hetch Hetchy Valley.. Based in Groveland, the HHRR operated from 1917 to 1949.It primarily carried construction crews and materials, but also took excursion passengers, freight, and mail. Royalty-free Creative Video Editorial Archive Custom Content Creative Collections. The making of gardens and parks goes on with civilization all over the world, and they increase both in size and number as their value is recognized. For Restore Hetch Hetchy, however, the overriding concern is righting what they see as a historical wrong to an iconic national park. The consciousness of the country with regard to conservation (or, more specifically at that time, preservation) was only just beginning. Hetch Hetchy Valley, far from being a plain, common, rock-bound meadow, as many who have not seen it seem to suppose, is a grand landscape garden, one of Nature's rarest and most precious mountain temples. After the built the dam farm land increased by a lot. How feasible is restoration? But rather that i saw more pros than cons in building the dam. SOLUTIONS. However, the Preservationists ultimately failed to convince Congress to stop the damming of the Hetch Hetchy due the ability to make money off the reservoir and the resources Hetch Hetchy provides that would benefit the people of San Francisco. Hetch Hetchy water travels 160 miles via gravity from . Over the years it has become a passion. Hello, my name is Jeff Kreider. 01 of 05. Carter uses phrases such as most unforgettable and humbling experience, flooded with life, and once-in-a-lifetime wild life spectacle to describe the true beauty of nature for which the reader can relate to. The first great American conservation movement was born during the Progressive Era out of the concern that industrial growth and urban development threatened to extinguish America's wilderness. The Sierra Club also built a visitor and education center in 1898. pros and cons of living in mackay; is alaska: the last frontier coming back in 2021; hillsborough county public schools employee handbook; index of series cheers; jack steward is he married. If the logging of Crater Lake is to impel, many of the natural treasures in the park would be wiped out and unsuitable as a wilderness destination (Juillerat, OPB). students will explore the divisions this controversy exposed within the conservation movement by using teacher selected documents and text representative of both sides of the debate along with actual records of the congressional hearings held to decide the valley's fate. Restoring the valley would return to Yosemite National Park a major asset. We can produce power from dams because of the kinetic energy of the water movements as it causes turbines to spin. Fortunately, humans have governments that will manage our areas of natural wilderness. The dam made irrigation, This year has been really hectic, with protests and elections alike. Like we said, Hetch Hetchy is in the northwestern section of Yosemite National Park. This river connects with the Colorado River as well, and now flows into Southern California 100 yards north of the US Mexico border. It started with some basic facts; that it stores up to 117 billion gallons of drinking water; it is a clean, efficient water delivery system for 2.6 million residents daily; and it generates 1.6 billion kilowatt hours of clean hydroelectric power annually. Since they built the dam, yuma became a bigger city which a lot of people passed through it to get to the gold rush. Hetch Hetchy: Pros and Cons of Restoration. Today, hetch hetchy valley is a dammed and flooded reservoir. If you're doing all of the main Yosemite things, such as stopping at Tunnel View or doing the Yosemite Valley Tram Tour, you'll need to head north and exit the Park through the Big Oak Flat entrance. In the past there was always flood incidents due to the river being uncontrolled and overflowing. . This is proven through several of documents written by Gifford Pinchot and John Raker, San Francisco District, The yuma project both had positive and negative impacts. However, the steep terrain, sharp curves, and heavy . The $7 million from the Park Service would, if approved, "provide a preliminary analysis of the advantages of dam retention versus removal and restoration, with emphasis on the potential benefits of . Royalty-free Creative Video Editorial Archive Custom Content Creative Collections. BAY AREA MONITOR The name Hetch Hetchy is derived from a Sierra Miwok word for a type of wild grass. Waterways can be used for transportation purposes. In the end Congress chose management over aesthetics, voting 4325 (with 29 abstentions) to allow the Hetch Hetchy dam on federal land. He argued that conservationists only wished to dam Hetch Hetchy as it would be low cost and saw no value in its natural state. The balttle over hetch hetchy robert w. Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. We have estimated the cost to be $B 2.0 over 50 years primarily for water supply, water quality and hydropower replacement. The public lands in the context of 1908 and 1913 when the merits were debated, included ALL federally held lands whether wilderness, forests or national parks. Agencies Accelerate Efforts to Build Transit-Oriented Development, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission. But there are signs all over Yosemite about not drinking the water because of the Giardia parasites. Beautiful reservoir with great views, pristine water. There doesnt seem to be financial or business need within their own sphere of financial responsibility forcing the city to consider relocating the water storage. . Hetch Hetchy doesn't require permit, you need just regular National park pass. . This flood ended up changing the flow of the water uncontrollable and ended up leading into the Imperial Valley. Copyright 2023 IPL.org All rights reserved. Hetch Hetchy captures snowmelt that runs off granite, Ritchie said. Located more than 900 metres (3,000 feet) above sea level, the Hetch Hetchy site offered a good storage location in the Sierra Nevada for water that could be delivered without pumping to San Francisco via an aqueduct nearly . Again, San Francisco Water Public Records did not respond to the argument In Favor of Restoration, so let me share what I have learned from various resources. He shows that every contribution is part of the whole nations power by which a difference in history can be. San Francisco began a partnership with Turlock and Modesto to share in Don Pedro Dam as well as the Tuolumne River (to which they already shared rights). Not only was that bad for the environmental movement, but also many people did not know how to act in the national parks. Feature Photo: Brooks Andersons Hetch Hetchy: Requiem For a Valley, Ive been curious about the water purity issue and that one of the features of the Tuolumne River is its purity and that it could be delivered without filtration. Due the logging proposal there have been various lawsuit claims from Cascadia Wild and Oregon Wild conservation groups. Our figures include replacing that with solar power.. Spreck Rosekrans said, Yes, certain system improvements are required to keep SF whole with respect to water and power. In fact . I snapped my first photograph in Yosemite December 24, 1979. Important Legacy real-time page. Up to 24% cash back (the hetch hetchy was a part of yosemite national park.) Word choice not only helps to visualize the situation better, but also to touch the minds and hearts of his audience. With negatives comes positives, in this case the hoover dam helped us control the colorado river which was and still is one our main resources. Leopold begins small in part I, he talks about this circle of life with animals and plants all playing a part and owning the land. Due to the high intelligence level of human, we often think that we know what are the consequences of our action, and do things the way we like without knowing the real impact that we cause. Hydroelectricity is responsible for 19% of the world's energy supply, offering over 3000 terawatts each year. They would lose about 20% of their hydropower. If they expand filtration at Sunol, they would need to break gravity at that point. Bill McEwen publishes this article in the Fresno Bee, located in Fresno, because he believes the project subsists unhelpful. Hetch Hetchy is an iconic, uncommon, and stunning terrain. The proposed dam in Hetch Hetchy Valley was to supply fresh water and electricity to San Francisco. Between 1850 and 1910, forests were cleared at a rate, They feel that being able to enjoy the natural beauty of the world was more beneficial to humanity than collecting resources from it and destroying it in the process. Trash was left behind by almost everyone who mined, and that really affected the environment. Hetch Hetchy is just 15 miles north of Yosemite Valley and the two are often called twins. 1-86-NARA-NARA or 1-866-272-6272, Advisory Committee on the Records of Congress, Hetch Hetchy: Congress and the Environment, For suggestions on how to usethese documents in a classroom, visit, To learn more about the Hetch Hetchy Valley, visit, To learnabout the devastating earthquake to San Francisco in 1906, visit, If you have problems viewing these images please contact. The don pedro reservoir, downstream from hetch hetchy, on the tuolumne river, currently has. The two books give near contemporary accounts of the Hetch Hetchy dam, one by the engineer in charge of building it. Pinchot would soon face opposition from ranchers and miners that began to hurt his position on conservation. You. However, the term was really able to come to prominence after economist Garret Hardin invoked the analogy in his 1968 paper Science. Which is used for more people. This grossly destructive commercial scheme has long been planned and urged (though water as pure and abundant can be got from sources outside of the peoples park, in a dozen different places), because of the comparative cheapness of the dam and of the territory which it is sought to divert from the great uses to which it was dedicated in the Act of 1890 establishing the Yosemite National Park. The Hetch Hetchy Project controversy brought into sharp relief the difference between conservation and preservation. The reservoir is about a 1-hour drive from both Groveland and Yosemite Village. These two viewpoints came into conflict when the Hetch Hetchy project was proposed to create a water supply above San Francisco. In a 2006 analysis in the Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Lund identified additional options for storing the water that is currently in Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. Their arguments are curiously like those of the devil, devised for the destruction of the first garden. . The state constitution says all water use must be reasonable, Rosekrans said. For example, in the spring/summer of 1905, an insane flood hit the lower part of the river as a flash flood. Which would cause yuma to lose more money. This park is more than mere scenic opportunities; it is a virtual wonderland wrought by yesteryear. . It pitted a powerful city against a dedicated group of conservationists. The notion that we could restore Hetch Hetchy would be very attractive if it didnt have any other effects but it does, Ritchie said, adding that the water goes to about one third of the people in the Bay Area. Is there some filtering or treatment now being applied that wasnt when your flyer was written? Theodore Roosevelt had to send out armies to protect the land and get people to understand the national parks, Yellowstone and Yosemite, that they needed to be treated the right. People who do not fully control the sources of their energy may take it for granted and waste it, however if they make changes in their lifestyle, these dangers can be avoided. So more people started to stay and the town's population became bigger. 2. The dam and reservoir are the source for the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct, which provides water for over . This created conflicts between the Conservationists and the Preservationists over the thought of building a dam in Hetch Hetchy. Local job creation. in addition, he dedicated four decades of all his knowledge to his community. The ideas expressed in this book transcend generation to generation. students will explore the divisions this controversy exposed within the conservation movement by using teacher selected documents and text representative of both sides of the debate along with actual records of the congressional hearings held to decide the valley's fate. It was denied in 1903 by Ethan Hitchcock, then Secretary of the Interior, because he felt that a National Park isnt like ordinary wildernesses. Proceedings before the secretary of the interior. The people in the Southwest tried getting the federal government's attention for help from all of the damage and work that needed to be done. Many worry that it will intrude on property rights, while others believe that it will be a danger to the environment. Only AFTER the Raker Act was put into place and AFTER the establishment of the National Park Service, was there any supportable cause to dissuade such usage in the future, but certainly NOT retro-actively. The story about the Hetch Hetchy Railroad, built in the 1910s and 1920s to bring the construction crews and materials needed to build the dam, hydroelectric plants, and aqueducts is very interesting if you like history and maps.After completion of the dam in 1923, the HHRR was used to carry tourists and mail to the Northern Yosemite area. Ultimately, the difference between preservation and conservation was highlight by the. What I havent done is look more closely at the pros and cons of the issues on each side. Pros and cons of allowing the Hetch Hetchy Dam to remain in place; Controversy surrounding removal of the Hetch Hetchy Dam; and ; Your position on whether the Hetchy Hetchy Dam should be removed or not. However, pumps and filtration could be added at a fraction of what Restore Hetch Hetchy says would be the benefit of a restored valley. I imagine a meadow, dotted with oak, pine, and fir trees, and with the Tuolumne River meandering through it, said Rosekrans, executive director of Restore Hetch Hetchy, a Berkeley-based nonprofit. Source: John Muir, The Yosemite (New York: Century, 1912), 255257, 260262. This fight set the stage for future battles between those who believed natural resources were to be used for the greatest good versus . JI & SP: Today, Hetch Hetchy Valley is a dammed and flooded reservoir. You own frozen Arctic tundra, endless southern wildflower fields and refreshing cool northern forests. Water flows can be controlled to a certain extent. His sorrow and melancholy mood towards the possible destruction of the stunning ecosystem is obvious: I was saddened to think of the tragedy that might occur if this great wilderness was consumed by a web of roads and pipelines, drilling rigs and industrial facilities. Additionally, Carter appeals to the nation by choosing words such as, tremendous opposition by the American people, symbol of our national heritage, and it will be a grand triumph for America to give the reader a feeling of importance towards this problem. Whether to restore hetch hetchy will be the subject of a panel discussion thursday at the commonwealth club, with experts from both sides of the debate, including tom graff, regional director. HETCH HETCHY RES A HETCH HETCHY CA. Yet, on September 19th, 2011 the demolition of the dam began and was the largest dam removal in history. The dam had been built in the early 20s and remained there, blocking the flow of the river for about 100 years before it was finally taken down. We argued that the reservoir is not reasonable because the value of the restored valley is greater than the cost of changing the water system. At the time, they put the recreational value of the restoration at up to $8.8 billion and the cost of water system changes at $2 billion, both over 50 years.